tv 60 Minutes CBS September 20, 2015 7:00pm-8:02pm EDT
captioning funded by cbs and ford. we go further, so you can. >> kroft: depending on where you stand politically, its either a triumph of global diplomacy, the best available solution, or a blunder of epic proportions. with that in mind, we traveled to tehran last week to sit down with iranian president hassan rouhani for the first interview he has given to a western news organization in nearly a year. i'm sure you realize that it is difficult for many americans to get past the fact that president obama has signed an agreement with a country that says, "death to america, death to israel." how do you explain this? >> pelley: what can we expect when the pope comes to visit this week?
well, we've got a preview at a spectacle held every wednesday called the general audience. this month, the vatican invited us to have a word with pope francis and witness the moving experience coming to the united states. what is your goal for america? "to meet people," he told us, "just to meet with them." >> we're almost there. almost there. >> cooper: meet chaser-- she may be the smartest dog in the world. >> chicken, chicken. where is chicken? yeah. good girl, good girl. >> cooper: researchers say she has a vocabulary of more than a thousand words, and knows the difference between nouns and verbs. what is science learning from man's best friend? >> that's good. >> cooper: you'll be surprised. >> when dogs and humans make eye contact, that actually releases what's known as the "love hormone," oxytocin. >> thank you very much.
>> when dogs are looking at you, they're essentially hugging you with their eyes. >> i'm steve kroft. >> i'm lesley stahl. >> i'm morley safer. >> i'm anderson cooper. >> i'm bill whitaker. >> i'm scott pelley. those stories tonight on "60 minutes". the internet of things. what we're recommending as your consultants... the new consultants are here. it's not just big data, its bigger data. we're beta testing the new wearable interface... ♪ xerox believes finding the right solution shouldn't be so much work. by engineering a better way for people, process and technology to work together. work can work better. with xerox.
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the deal drastically curtails iran's nuclear program in exchange for the lifting of economic sanctions. depending on where you stand politically, its either a triumph of global diplomacy, the best available solution, or a blunder of epic proportions. over the past few months, nearly everyone has weighed in, from president obama and the congress, to republican and democratic presidential candidates to israeli prime minister benjamin netanyahu. but not much has been heard from the iranians. with that in mind, we traveled to tehran last week to sit down with iranian president hassan rouhani for the first interview he has given to a western news organization in nearly a year. what do you think of the agreement? >> hassan rouhani ( translated ): a very difficult agreement to reach, with lots of ups and downs. but it's the right path we have chosen. i am happy that we have taken extremely important steps on this issue and are in the process of taking the final steps.
>> kroft: were you surprised by the ferocity of the debate in the united states and the outcome? >> rouhani: it was predictable. an issue of this significance cannot be resolved without its opponents. one is surprised by the commentaries, and the commentaries are not very pleasant. some groups and political parties may be against it, but the governments of the world, all together, welcomed this deal. >> kroft: opponents have argued that the u.s. has given away too much for very little in return from iran-- agreeing to lift the sanctions on iran in exchange for, what they call, a "temporary 15-year freeze" on nuclear operations, after which iran would be free to resume or begin work on a nuclear bomb, with far more resources than they have now. >> rouhani: if a country wanted, with the technical resources it has, to gain an atomic bomb, this deal would have been a very bad deal for it. because the deal creates
limitations from all sides to getting an atomic bomb. but if a country has been after peaceful technology from the beginning, then it has lost nothing. we wanted this incorrect accusation-- that iran is after nuclear weapons-- corrected and resolved, and that the goal of iran is peaceful activity. in this deal, we have accepted limitations for a period of time in order to create more trust with the world. >> kroft: the whole deal requires a leap of faith between two longtime enemies. the iranians have always insisted that their nuclear program is peaceful and that a religious fatwah prohibits them from building nuclear weapons. but there is little doubt that the iranians know how to build them and have had the wherewithal to do it. now, they will be required to ship 98% of their enriched uranium out of the country, lock up thousands of centrifuges, close its bomb-proof enrichment facility at fordow, disable its heavy water reactor at arak, and
submit to rigorous international inspections. the opposition here has also been ferocious. the deal has been attacked on state television and in hard- line newspapers, and the head of the revolutionary guard has said, "we will never accept it." the united states seems to have its hard-liners and iran seems to have its hard-liners. the opponents say essentially that they think iran has given up too much control over their nuclear program to the u.s. and other foreign countries, and to the i.a.e.a. do you see similarities between the united states and iran in terms of the opposition to this? >> rouhani: there are similarities. it's natural that opponents always look for the maximum possible outcome. in an agreement, neither achieves the maximum. both sides must always concede a little bit from the maximum to get an agreement. therefore, the person who seeks the maximum complains. the result of this agreement
benefits everyone, benefits both sides because we have been able to reach an understanding, an agreement, on a very complicated issue at the negotiating table and be able to prevent misunderstandings, and take the first step towards trust. of course, for reaching trust between the u.s. and iran, there is need for a lot of time. >> kroft: some of the opponents are very powerful. the commander of the revolutionary guards, for example, has condemned the deal. how do you deal with that? that's an important political force in this country. >> rouhani: it's clear that some will be opposed, some will be in favor, will express their opinions. but at the same time, after the agreement is approved by the responsible institutions, everyone will comply with that. the revolutionary guards also, when the deal is approved by responsible institutions, they, too, will respect this agreement. >> kroft: president rouhani's boss, supreme leader ayatolllah
ali khamenei, has final say on the final agreement, and has sent it to the iranian parliament and the supreme national security council on national security for a vigorous debate. publicly, the ayatollah has maintained a hard-line stance against the united states, while supporting the negotiations. president rouhani expressed confidence that the deal will be approved. >> rouhani: the majority of our people, in opinion polls, have a positive view of the agreement. and usually institutions like the parliament and the supreme national security council are usually not far-removed from public opinion and move in that direction. >> kroft: you have been very temperate in your statements about these negotiations. you have been trying to encourage a sense of good will between the united states and iran, but some of this... some of the success has been undercut by very harsh statements from both sides. since the deal, the ayatollah khamanei has endorsed, even praised, the chanting of "death
to america" and "death to israel" at the friday prayers by demonstrators, and he continues to call the united states the "great satan." do you believe the united states is the great satan? >> rouhani: the enmity that existed between the united states and iran over the decades, the distance, the disagreements, the lack of trust, will not go away soon. what's important is which direction we are heading. are we heading towards amplifying the enmity or decreasing this enmity? i believe we have taken the first steps towards decreasing this enmity. >> kroft: do you think the united states is the "great satan?" >> rouhani: satan, in our religious parlance, is used to refer to that power that tricks others and whose words are not clear words, do not match reality. what i can say is that the u.s. has made many mistakes in the
past regarding iran, and must make up for those mistakes. >> kroft: i'm sure you realize that it is difficult for many americans to get past the fact that president obama has signed an agreement with a country that says, "death to america, death to israel." how do you explain this? what are they to make of it? are they to take it literally? is this for domestic, internal iranian political consumption? what are americans to make of it, the language? >> rouhani: this slogan that is chanted is not a slogan against the american people. our people respect the american people. the iranian people are not looking for war with any country. but at the same time, the policies of the united states have been against the national interests of iranian people. it's understandable that people will demonstrate sensitivity to this issue. when the people rose up against
the shah, the united states aggressively supported the shah until the last moments. in the eight-year war with iraq, the americans supported saddam. people will not forget these things. we cannot forget the past, but at the same time, our gaze must be towards the future. >> kroft: "death to america" is a very simple concept. three words, not much room left for interpretation. not very conciliatory. do you see the day when that language will not be used? you yourself have encouraged both sides to try and lower the temperature. >> rouhani: if america puts the enmity aside, if it initiates good will, and if it compensates for the past, the future situation between the united states and iran will change. >> kroft: the united states has just signed an agreement with iran to lift the sanctions. is that not a sign of goodwill?
>> rouhani: it hasn't been implemented yet. the lifting of the sanctions must be initiated. >> kroft: full implementation of the agreement is still months away, and requires that the international atomic energy agency certify that iran has lived up to its commitments under the deal. do you think the level of trust between iran and the united states has improved because of this treaty? >> rouhani: relative to the past, it's improved. but this does not mean that all disagreements are resolved, or all the distrust removed. in one case, on one issue, yes, we have managed to overcome the problem. >> kroft: there has been speculation and hope inside and outside of iran and in the united states that this nuclear deal could be a catalyst for some broader, if limited, cooperation between the two countries where there are mutual interests.
>> rouhani: many areas exist where, in those areas, it's possible that common goals or common interests may exist. but what is important is that, in the nuclear agreement, we see how the two sides behave in action. enacting this deal in a good way will create a new environment. >> kroft: ayatollah khamenei has said that there will be no further cooperation beyond the nuclear agreement, but there is already some indirect military coordination between u.s. air strikes and iranian-backed shiite militias both fighting against isis in iraq. officially, it's being done through the iraqi military. there is also the possibility of future cooperation in syria. you have said that you are willing to sit down with any country, friend or enemy, to discuss the situation in syria in order to stop the bloodshed. what does iran see as a possible, workable, acceptable solution to the situation in syria?
>> rouhani: look, in a county where a large segment of the country has been occupied by terrorists, and there is bloodshed inside the country, millions of people have been displaced, how is it possible that we fight the terrorists of this country without supporting and helping the government of that country? how can we fight the terrorists without the government staying? of course, after we have fought terrorism and a secure environment is created, then it is time to talk about the constitution or the future regime. to talk and discuss, opposition groups and supporters sit at the table, but during a situation of bloodshed and during an occupation of the country, what options exist? >> kroft: so far, president rouhani has been the biggest political beneficiary of the agreement between iran and the united states. he is popular with the voters right now, but he's also ruffled some feathers and, no doubt, irritated political rivals. this agreement was a big political victory for you, personally. you were elected president based
on the idea that you wanted to open up iran to the outside world, that you wanted to get the sanctions lifted, that you wanted to bring prosperity back to the country, so iran can take its place among the great nations of the world and not be isolated. there are still some things in that agenda that are still unfulfilled-- freedom of speech, more access to the internet, and personal freedoms. >> rouhani: i think, relative to the two years i've been in office, i have been successful-- not 100% of course, but successful. our relations with other countries have improved. there is more freedom at the universities, lively debates and greater freedom of the press, compared to the past. of course, there are some issues that are not in control of the government. >> kroft: two of those issues, human rights and personal freedoms, are in the domain of iran's conservative judicial system. two former presidential candidates have been under house arrest for the past four and a
half years, and there are at least three americans imprisoned here. as we sit here speak the... right now, there is a dual american/iranian citizen, a journalist for the "washington post", jason rezaian, in prison for more than a year on unspecified charges. there has been talk among leaders in the last few weeks that there might be a prisoner exchange. is there anything you can say to clarify the situation? >> rouhani: we have iranians who are imprisoned in the united states, iranians who are being pursued, and most of them are being pursued for circumventing the sanctions. and you know that from the beginning, we considered the sanctions to be wrong and we encouraged everyone to circumvent them. we consider all of those prisoners to be innocent, and consider it wrong that they are in prison. >> kroft: would you... would you support a prisoner exchange? >> rouhani: i don't particularly like the word "exchange," but from a humanitarian perspective,
if we can take a step, we must do it. the american side must take its own steps. >> kroft: if the nuclear deal stays on track and the sanctions are lifted, the iranian treasury will soon begin collecting $100 billion in oil revenues that have been frozen in overseas banks. and president rouhani says iran will be open for business. >> rouhani: as you know, in iran, we are transferring the economy step by step to the private, non-governmental sector. our private sector and the american private sector can improve the environment. actually, it will strengthen the nuclear agreement. even tourism-- if the people of the united states come to iran and see its ancient history and nature of iran, and the people of iran go to the united states to see america, this can shorten the walls of mistrust and improve the situation for the future.
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>> pelley: as a young man, jorge bergoglio was a bouncer at a nightclub, ejecting undesirables. 60 years later, he's still minding the door. but now, as pope francis, he has thrown the catholic church open to all, especially the dispossessed, the disbelieving, the wayward, and the wicked. recently, he announced a welcoming path back to the church for those who've been through divorce and abortion. and he's declared 2016, "the year of mercy." what can we expect when the pope comes to visit? well, we got a preview at a spectacle that's held every wednesday in rome called the general audience.
this month, the vatican invited us to have a word with pope francis, and witness the moving experience coming this week to the united states. at first light, wednesdays, st. peter's square prepares for the man that no one saw coming. the first pope from the new world, who had pulled in behind the first papal resignation in 600 years, grabbed his hat, this past week, and went back to work before a crowd of 30,000 or more-- his 103rd general audience. so far, 15 million have met francis in rome. but don't ask them what to expect, because god only knows. >> ken hackett: do they have a good idea? no! he's a pope of surprises.
he is so spontaneous, and it makes people feel wonderful. >> pelley: few americans know the new pope like ken hackett, u.s. ambassador to the holy see, latin for "holy seat." >> hackett: first of all, they're going to see a pastor, and if they don't know what a pastor is, they're going to learn quickly. because he's genuine. he's intelligent. he moves from the heart. he's somebody who is not afraid. he is about the people who are in need and suffering and going through turmoil in their lives. he is trying to be there with them. >> pelley: and he will be in the u.s. for the first time in his life-- washington, new york, philadelphia. >> hackett: it is such a special moment for so many people, and we're going to see that in the united states in all three cities. >> pelley: those special moments arise because the pope understands what is not obvious. the general audience is not
about the pope; it's about thousands of burdens, dreams, hopes and regrets hauled into the square to be lifted by a 78- year-old man. >> david yoder: i have never photographed anything like that before, where you had so much raw emotion just laid out in front of you. >> pelley: the emotion is captured by "national geographic's" david yoder. >> yoder: it's like they don't have any walls when they meet this guy. it's like finding a long-lost relative is what i see. some of them are euphoric. >> pelley: any moments that surprised you, any time you thought to yourself "did i just see that?" >> yoder: all the time. >> pelley: yoder worked six months, shooting 68,000 images for the magazine and a new book on life at the vatican. what's happening with this man? >> yoder: well, pope francis had just blessed him, had just laid his hand on his forehead, and he's... he's just overcome. he is completely broken down emotionally, the experience was
so powerful for him. >> pelley: what do you see in the pope's face? >> yoder: i'm sure that he really enjoys it. i think that he pushes it up to the point where he exhausts himself, sometimes. he's a very sincere person-- when it comes to meeting people, he'll fluctuate between serious and laughing. it's really been interesting to watch. >> guillermo karcher translated ): it's his style of life. the style of living each moment. but he has this way, maybe a little latino, a bit south american. >> pelley: monsignor guillermo karcher is a fellow argentinean who is the strong right arm for the man that he has known 23 years. ask karcher about the best moment, and he remembers the first mass in the square. >> karcher: he was in the pope mobile, and he hit it and said "we must stop," and he got off
to bless and embrace a quadriplegic. and i remember that the following day, i asked him how he had realized that, in the middle of that huge crowd, there was someone with such need to receive a caress and a blessing? and he said, "i perceive it." and i can assure you, that morning, i took a step backward because i realized i'm truly in front of someone who is special. >> pelley: special for his humility. because francis forsakes what most people desire, he has the power to give them what they need. he turned down the apostolic palace where popes roomed with michelangelo and moved into a vatican hotel. his room 201 is more sherwin- williams than rafael. he ditched the papal limousine and the traditional red slippers
for a blue ford focus and clunky orthopedic shoes. and he works like a man who's running out of time. >> karcher: he gets up at 4:30 in the morning. from 5:00 to 7:00, he prepares his interior life, with prayer and reflection, his daily homilies. >> pelley: he gets up at 4:30 in the morning? >> karcher: yes, he's very regular like that, very disciplined. >> pelley: and the day ends for him when? >> karcher: 10:00, 10:30 in the in the evening. >> pelley: karcher told us he brings the pope the news on a tablet-- glass, not stone. and francis prefers the phone to email. >> karcher: many times, he surprises people. maybe he knows of someone who is suffering or very sick, and he calls them. many times, they cut him off because they don't believe him. he says, "i'm francis," and they don't believe it's the pope.
>> pelley: has he called you? >> ignazio marino: oh yes, a few times. >> pelley: he says "hello, this is pope francis. how are you doing, mr. mayor?" >> marino: yes. >> pelley: before ignazio marino became mayor of rome, he was a transplant surgeon in pennsylvania. he'll be with the pope in philadelphia. what do you talk about? >> marino: well, most of the time, we talk about the city. >> pelley: was the pope offering his assistance to you? was he calling and saying, "mr. mayor how can we help?" >> marino: oh, he does, he does all the time. >> pelley: the pope wanted to help the homeless, who also caught the eye of "national geographic's" david yoder. francis set up a clinic for the destitute and showers inside the vatican. wednesday mornings, cleanliness is next to godliness in the 350- year-old square. the piazza is a sundial, pinned at the center by an obelisk that was more than 1,000 years old
when jesus was born. on that scale, general audiences practically began yesterday. it was in 1929, when the vatican became a country of its own. everyone can come to the audience. and hours before the 10:00 start, the determined hustle for front row seats like competitors at a sale after thanksgiving. they find francis selfless in the age of the selfie. are the ushers trying to keep people back from the pope so that they don't throw their arms around them? >> augusto pellegrini ( translated ): if everyone wanted a selfie with the pope, the audience would last all day. it's the pope who decides whether to grant a selfie not. >> pelley: augusto pellegrini is dean of the papal ushers, who corral the crowd and grab the gifts which francis hands off left and right.
you know, i suspect, like with any new boss, the pope might have given you some advice on how to do your job. >> pellegrini: he wants the people who are around him not to tie him to protocol so that he may be free to move. he wants as many children as possible. at the beginning, we thought maybe the pope was tired but no, no, he kissed them, caressed them. and so, we learned never to assume the pope is tired, and so to allow a lot of freedom. >> pelley: but freedom is exactly what worries the man who stands at the right fender of the father. urs breitenmoser is a sergeant in the 500-year-old swiss guard, the pope's bodyguards. >> urs breitenmoser: we cannot be like a wall around him. so, as he is a pastor, he loves to be a pastor, he needs the contact with people. it is very personal, very human, and for us, its an awesome experience.
>> pelley: the guard is the oldest and smallest army on earth-- a force of 110, all swiss, all catholic, all pledged to give their lives. there are guards that you can't miss, and guards that you can't see, the ones in plain clothes with automatic weapons. in the united states, the secret service often says to the president's staff, "look, we know you want to do that, but we can't do that." do you ever say that to the pope? >> breitenmoser: well, no, we tried at the beginning. we tried. but he said he always has the last word, and we were discussing about security and safety problems. he's not interested in the risk he is going to have. >> pelley: about the risk, francis said, "the lord has put me here, he'll just have to take care of me." but as francis made it around to us, we found that he takes care of himself pretty well, bulletproof against questions in
our prearranged meeting. what is your goal for america? "to meet people," he told us, "just to meet with them." what can the faithful expect from the year of mercy? "the mercy of god is so great, it will surprise us all." will you speak of immigration and the dispossessed in america? "i shall talk about what the holy spirit will inspire me to say." since francis kept his plans under his hat, we asked those close to his mind. the pope has had harsh words for capitalism. america is the capitalist capital of the world. and i wonder what the pope makes of america on the eve of his trip?
>> karcher: he thinks it is a great country, that it has a great government, and that it is important for the balance of the world. >> pelley: mr. ambassador, what do you think the pope will talk about when he comes to the united states? >> hackett: well, he will obviously talk about the things that he cares very much about-- poverty, people being excluded, falling through the cracks, people who are suffering in... because of economic situations. he'll talk about persecution of christians and other minorities in the middle east. i mean, it is, these days, very tangible and palpable as we see the migrants coming in, how they're suffering. he'll talk about those kind of things. he just finished his encyclical on climate change and no doubt he will speak to that. >> pelley: you're expecting a lot of frankness. >> hackett: he has been nothing but frank in the two years that i've been here with him. >> pelley: should the american people expect more candor than diplomacy? >> marino: oh!
he is absolutely 100% candor, i would say; close to 0% diplomacy. >> pelley: francis is frank in many languages, but english isn't one of them. we're told that he's been studying, and as we reached out with a parting gift, we were surprised to hear the one request made by a pilgrim before his first trip to the united states. >> pope francis: pray for me. >> pelley: "pray for me." >> francis: i need it. >> pelley: "i need it." >> francis: god bless you. >> pelley: may i present you this book? >> what book did scott pelley choose to give the pope? go to 60minutesovertime.com to find out. or stop to find a bathroom? cialis for daily use, is approved to treat both erectile dysfunction and the urinary symptoms of bph, like needing to go frequently, day or night. tell your doctor about all your medical conditions and medicines, and ask if your heart is healthy enough for sex.
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>> cooper: human beings have lived with dogs for thousands of years. you'd think that, after all that time, we'd have discovered all there is to know about them. but, as we first reported last fall, it turns out that, until recently, scientists didn't pay much attention to dogs. dolphins have been studied for decades, apes and chimps as well, but dogs, with whom we share our lives, were never thought to be worthy of serious study. as a result, we know very little about what actually goes on inside dogs' brains. do they really love us, or are dogs just licking us so they can get fed? how much of our language can they understand? before you answer, we want you to meet chaser, who's been called "the smartest dog in the world." >> john pilley: yeah, we are going to wofford. hup. good girl. good girl. good girl. >> cooper: 86-year-old retired psychology professor john pilley and his border collie chaser are inseparable. >> pilley: we are almost there.
almost there. can you speak? speak? speak! ( chaser barks ) >> pilley: good girl. good girl. >> cooper: do you view chaser as a family pet, as a friend? how do you see chaser? >> pilley: she's our child. >> cooper: she's your child? >> pilley: she's our child, a member of the family. oh, yes, she comes first. >> cooper: many people think of their dogs as children, but john pilley has been teaching her like a child as well. by assigning names to toys, pilley has been helping chaser learn words and simple sentences. >> pilley: take k.g. >> cooper: he's been teaching her up to five hours a day, five days a week, for the past nine years. >> pilley: my best metaphor is this is a two-year-old toddler. >> cooper: that's how you think about your dog, a two-year-old toddler? >> pilley: yeah, she has the capabilities of a two-year-old. chicken, chicken, chicken. where's chicken? yes. good girl. >> cooper: he's not kidding. most two-year-old toddlers know about 300 words. >> pilley: figure eight. figure eight.
good girl. that's figure eight. >> cooper: chaser's vocabulary is three times that. >> pilley: to tub. >> cooper: she's learned the names of more than 1,000 toys, and all those toys add up. >> pilley: wheel-- yes, bring it on. >> cooper: to show us chaser's collection, pilley's brought us to his back porch. so, these are all the toys in here? >> pilley: yes. >> cooper: got a chicken in here. is it all right if i dump them out? >> pilley: please do. please do. >> cooper: there are 800 cloth animals, 116 different balls, and more than 100 plastic toys-- 1,022 toys in all, each with a unique name. so chaser could recognize the names of every one of these toys? >> pilley: that's true, that's true. >> cooper: to prove it, pilley catalogued the toys, and then, over the course of three years, gave chaser hundreds of tests like this. >> pilley: chaser, find circle, find circle. >> cooper: in every test, chaser correctly identified 95% or more of the toys. >> pilley: find circle, chase. yeah. >> cooper: the results were published in a peer-reviewed
scientific journal, and a star was born. >> how are you? i'm so glad to see you. >> cooper: chaser even landed a book deal. but john pilley didn't stop with the names of toys. >> pilley: nose k.g. nose k.g. nose it. nose it. good girl. >> cooper: he's taught chaser that nouns and verbs have different meanings... >> pilley: paw it. paw it. >> cooper: ...and can be combined in a variety of ways. >> pilley: chase, take wheel. do it, girl, do it. okay. out. out. chase, take k.g. do it. good girl. good girl. >> cooper: so she's actually understanding the difference between "take," "paw," putting her paw on something, and putting her nose on something? >> pilley: right. and that's what we are demonstrating. >> cooper: all this learning has been possible, pilley says, because of a breakthrough chaser had when she was just a puppy. at a certain point, she realized that objects have names? >> pilley: right. it was an insight that came to her. >> cooper: how could you tell that she'd suddenly had that insight? >> pilley: well, it was in the fifth month and she'd learned about 40 names.
and the time necessary to work with her kept getting shorter and shorter. >> cooper: she was starting to learn words faster and faster? >> pilley: yes. >> brian hare: it's the closest thing in animals we've seen to being like what young children do as they are learning words. >> cooper: brian hare, an evolutionary anthropologist at duke university, believes chaser is the most important dog in the history of modern scientific research. >> hare: this is very serious science. we're not talking about stupid pet tricks where people have spent, you know, hours trying to just train a dog to do the same thing over and over. what's neat about what chaser's doing is chaser is learning tons, literally thousands of new things by using the same ability that kids use when they learn lots of words. >> cooper: he's talking about what researchers call social inference, a capability humans, like hare's son luke, acquire around age one. to demonstrate the concept, hare hides a ball under one of these two cups. >> hare: hey, lukey guy. where is it? can you get it? can you get the ball?
>> cooper: luke doesn't know which cup the ball is under, but when his father points, he makes an inference. hey, nice job. >> hare: you got it. >> cooper: so what does that show you? >> hare: so, when kids his age start understanding pointing, it's right when the foundations of what lead to language and culture start to develop. >> cooper: it might look simple, but when hare tried the same test with bonobos, great apes he studied for more than a decade, look what happened. bonobos, our closest genetic relatives, can't do it. >> hare: oh, you chose the wrong one. >> cooper: but hare discovered dogs can. >> hare: you ready? so i'm going to hide it in one of these two places. >> cooper: this two-year-old labrador named sisu has no trouble understanding the meaning of pointing. now, she doesn't know for sure which place you've put it in? >> hare: that's right. there is no way she could know. and i'm just going to tell her where it is. okay, sisu. so, that's really hard for a lot of animals, and that's what is really special about dogs is they're really similar to even human toddlers.
>> cooper: that's a level of thinking that people didn't really think dogs could do? >> hare: right. i mean, there was no evidence until the last decade that dogs were capable of inferential reasoning, absolutely not. so, that's what's new, that's what's shocking is that, of all the species, it's dogs that are showing a couple of abilities that are really important, that allow humans to develop culture and language. >> cooper: it's not surprising that dogs share characteristics with humans. after all, we've evolved alongside each other for more than 15,000 years. there are now some 80 million dogs in this country, more dogs than children. but for all the playing and petting, the companionship, we still know very little about their brains. dr. greg berns, a physician and neuroscientist at emory university, has studied the human brain for more than two decades. but three years ago, questions he had about his own dog inspired him to start looking at the canine brain. >> greg berns: it started out with the desire to know, really, "what does my dog think of me?" i love my dog, but do they
reciprocate in any way? when they hear you come home, you know, they start jumping around. is it just because they expect you to feed them? is this all just a scam by the dogs? >> cooper: are dogs just big scammers? >> berns: yeah. >> cooper: to try and answer that question, dr. berns is doing something scientists have had a difficult time with. he's conducting brain scans on dogs while they're awake and unsedated. inside the fmri machine, they're trained to stay completely still. what's around tigger's head here? >> berns: the scanner makes a lot of noise. it's quite loud. and because dogs' hearing is more sensitive than ours, we have to protect their hearing, just like ours. so we... we put earplugs and earmuffs, and just wrap it all to just keep it in place. >> okay, now we can go up. >> cooper: tigger certainly knows the drill. once in the machine, he lies down and doesn't move. these scans are giving dr. berns the first glimpse at how a dog's brain actually works. so these are slices of tigger's
brain that you're seeing? >> berns: yeah, exactly. so we're slicing from top to bottom. we analyze them later to see which parts increase in response to the different signals. >> cooper: while in the scanner, the dogs smell cotton swabs with different scents. first, the underarm sweat of a complete stranger. next, the sweat of their owner. as dr. berns expected, when the dogs sniffed the swabs the part of their brain associated with smell, an area right behind the nose, activated. it didn't matter what the scent was. but it was when the dogs got a whiff of their owner's sweat that another area of the brain was stimulated, the caudate nucleus or "reward center." dr. berns believes that means the dog is experiencing more than the good feeling that comes with a meal. it shows the dog is recognizing somebody extremely important to them. it's the same area in a human brain that activates when we listen to a favorite song or anticipate being with someone we love. so just by smelling the sweat of their owner, it triggers something in a much stronger way than it does with a stranger?
>> berns: right, which means that it's a positive feeling, a positive association. >> cooper: watch youtube videos of dogs welcoming home returning service members, and it's easy to see the bond between dogs and their owners. brian hare says there's even more proof of that bond-- it's found in our blood streams. >> hare: we know that when dogs and humans make eye contact, that that actually releases what's known as the "love hormone," oxytocin, in both the dog and the human. >> cooper: it turns out oxytocin, the same hormone that helps new mothers bond with their babies, is released in both dogs and humans when they play, touch, or look into one another's eyes. >> thank you very much. >> hare: what we know now is that, when dogs are actually looking at you, they're essentially hugging you with their eyes. >> cooper: really? >> hare: yes. and so, it's not just that when a dog is making a lot of eye contact with you that they're just trying to get something from you. it actually probably is just really enjoyable for them, because they get an oxytocin, or they get an uptick in this love
hormone, too. >> cooper: all these new discoveries about dogs have led brian hare to create a science- based web site called "dognition," where owners can learn to play games to test their dog's brain power. so you're allowing people to do an intelligence test for their dogs? >> hare: that's exactly right. and the idea, though, is that there's not one type of intelligence. we help you measure things like how your dog communicates, how empathic your dog is. is your dog cunning? is your dog actually capable of abstract thought like reasoning? >> cooper: so, there are different kinds of intelligence for dogs, just like with humans? >> hare: absolutely. and so, just like some humans are good at english, and others are good at math, it's the same for dogs. >> cooper: when hare tested his own dog, a mixed breed named tassie, he was surprised by what he learned. >> hare: what i found out was that i had someone sleeping in my bed that i didn't even know. >> cooper: really? >> hare: and i didn't know my dog doesn't really rely on its working memory. so, if i'm saying "sit" and "stay," i no longer have to wonder why my dog wanders off. he, like, literally forgot. >> cooper: so, you're dog's not the sharpest of dogs?
>> hare: he did great on communication. he's very communicative. >> cooper: so he can basically be a tv anchor? >> hare: yes. >> pilley: fetch shirt. fetch shirt. there we go. >> cooper: if you're wondering how chaser did on brian hare's intelligence tests? she was off the charts on reasoning and memory. not surprising, perhaps, considering chaser is a border collie, dogs bred specifically for their ability to understand how farmers want their sheep herded. is chaser just like an einstein of dogs? >> hare: so, that's really fun. is chaser somehow special? and i think the idea, actually, is that no... i mean, when dr. pilley chose chaser, he just randomly took her out of a litter. >> pilley: drop. drop. >> hare: what's special is that he spent so much time playing these games to help her learn words, but are there lots of chasers out there? absolutely. >> pilley: on your mark, get set, go! >> cooper: there's going to be a lot of people who see this and are jealous of your relationship with chaser. >> pilley: well, start working with your dog more.
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